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alan_watts [2016/01/30 20:07] (current)
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 +{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}
 +{{Use British English|date=July 2012}}
 +{{Infobox philosopher
 +|name             = Alan Watts
 +|region ​          = [[Eastern Philosophy]]
 +|era              = [[Contemporary philosophy]]
 +|image ​           = 
 +|caption ​         =
 +| birth_name ​     = Alan Wilson Watts
 +| birth_date ​     = {{Birth date|1915|1|6|df=y}}
 +| birth_place ​    = [[Chislehurst]],​ [[Kent]], England
 +| death_date ​     = {{Death date and age|1973|11|16|1915|1|6|df=y}}
 +| death_place ​    = [[Mt. Tamalpais]],​ [[California]],​ United States
 +|school_tradition = {{unbulleted list |[[Zen Buddhism]] |[[Hinduism]] |[[Pantheism]] ||[[Christianity]] |[[Religious naturalism]] |[[Taoism]]}}
 +|main_interests ​  = {{unbulleted list |[[Identity (social science)|Personal identity]] |[[Higher consciousness]] |[[Aesthetics]] |Cultural criticism|[[Ethics|Public ethics]]|}}
 +|nationality ​     = British and American<​ref>​James Craig Holte ''​[http://​​books?​id=kWJoPT3zBK0C&​pg=PA199&​dq=Alan+Watts+american+citizen&​hl=en&​sa=X&​ei=DGAiUfOLHZCoqQGtkYDwBQ&​ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q=Alan%20Watts%20american%20citizen&​f=false The Conversion Experience in America: A '​Sourcebook on American Religious Conversion Autobiography]''​ page 199</​ref>​
 +|influences ​      = {{unbulleted list| [[Christmas Humphreys]] | [[Ruth Fuller Sasaki]] | [[D. T. Suzuki]] | [[Timothy Leary]] | [[Carl Jung]] | [[Joseph Campbell]] | [[John Cage]] | [[Jean Burden]] | [[Ananda Coomaraswamy]] | [[Jiddu Krishnamurti]]}}
 +|influenced ​      = {{unbulleted list| [[Monica Furlong]] | [[Seraphim Rose]] | [[Robert Anton Wilson]]}}
 +'''​Alan Wilson Watts'''​ (6 January 1915 – 16 November 1973) was a British-born American [[philosopher]],​ writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of [[Eastern philosophy]] for a [[Western culture|Western]] audience. Born in [[Chislehurst]],​ England, he moved to the United States in 1938 and began [[Zen]] training in New York. Pursuing a career, he attended [[Seabury-Western Theological Seminary]], where he received a master'​s degree in [[theology]]. Watts became an [[Episcopal Church (United States)|Episcopal]] priest in 1945, then left the ministry in 1950 and moved to [[California]],​ where he joined the faculty of the [[American Academy of Asian Studies]].
 +Watts gained a large following in the [[San Francisco Bay Area]] while working as a volunteer programmer at [[KPFA]], a [[Pacifica Radio]] station in [[Berkeley, California|Berkeley]]. Watts wrote more than 25 books and articles on subjects important to [[Eastern religion|Eastern]] and [[Western religion]], introducing the then-[[Counterculture of the 1960s|burgeoning youth culture]] to ''​The Way of Zen''​ (1957), one of the first bestselling books on [[Buddhism]]. In ''​Psychotherapy East and West''​ (1961), Watts proposed that Buddhism could be thought of as a form of [[psychotherapy]] and not a religion. He considered "​Nature,​ Man, and Woman" (1958) to be, "from a literary point of view - the best book I have ever written."​{{citation needed|date=September 2015}} He also explored human consciousness,​ in the essay "The New Alchemy"​ (1958), and in the book ''​The Joyous Cosmology''​ (1962).
 +Towards the end of his life, he divided his time between a houseboat in [[Sausalito,​ California|Sausalito]] and a cabin on [[Mount Tamalpais]]. Many of his books are now available in digital format and many of his recorded talks and lectures are available on the Internet. According to the critic [[Erik Davis]], his "​writings and recorded talks still shimmer with a profound and galvanizing lucidity."<​ref>​{{cite book |last=David |first=Erik |authorlink=Erik Davis |year=2006 |title=The Visionary State: A Journey through California'​s Spiritual Landscape |publisher=Chronicle Books |isbn=0-8118-4835-3}}</​ref>​
 +==Early years==
 +[[File:Alan Watts age7.JPG|thumb|upright|Alan Watts, age seven]]
 +Watts was born to [[middle class]] parents in the village of [[Chislehurst]],​ [[Kent]] (now south-east London), in 1915, living at 3 (now 5) Holbrook Lane. His father, Laurence Wilson Watts, was a representative for the London office of the [[Michelin|Michelin Tyre Company]]; his mother, Emily Mary Watts (née Buchan), was a housewife whose father had been a [[missionary]]. With modest financial means, they chose to live in pastoral surroundings and Alan, an only child, grew up playing at brookside, learning the names of wildflowers and butterflies.<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973 ''​In My Own Way: An Autobiography''​ 1915–1965,​ New York: Pantheon</​ref>​ Probably because of the influence of his mother'​s religious family<​ref>''​Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts'',​ by Monica Furlong, p. 12</​ref>​ the Buchans, an interest in "​ultimate things"​ seeped in. But it mixed with Alan's own interests in storybook fables and romantic tales of the mysterious Far East.<​ref>''​Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts'',​ by Monica Furlong, p. 22</​ref>​
 +Watts also later wrote of a mystical dream he experienced while ill with a fever as a child.<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973, p. 322</​ref>​ During this time he was influenced by Far Eastern landscape paintings and embroideries that had been given to his mother by missionaries returning from China. The few Chinese paintings Watts was able to see in England riveted him, and he wrote "I was aesthetically fascinated with a certain clarity, transparency,​ and spaciousness in Chinese and Japanese art. It seemed to float..."​.<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973, pp. 71–72</​ref>​ These works of art emphasized the participative relationship of man in nature, a theme that stood fast throughout his life, and one that he often writes about. See, for instance, the last chapter in ''​The Way of Zen''​.<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1957, Part 2, Chapter 4</​ref>​
 +[[File:​Kamakura-buddha-1.jpg|thumb|left|Seated Great [[Buddha]] ([[Daibutsu]]),​ Kamakura, Japan]]
 +By his own assessment, Watts was imaginative,​ headstrong, and talkative. He was sent to [[boarding school]]s (which included both academic and religious training of the [[Muscular Christianity]] sort) from early years. Of this religious training, he remarked "​Throughout my schooling my religious indoctrination was grim and maudlin…"<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973, p. 60</​ref>​
 +Watts spent several holidays in [[France]] in his teen years, accompanied by Francis Croshaw, a wealthy [[Epicureanism|Epicurean]] with strong interests in both [[Buddhism]] and exotic little-known aspects of European culture. It was not long afterward that Watts felt forced to decide between the [[Anglican]] Christianity he had been exposed to and the Buddhism he had read about in various libraries, including Croshaw'​s. He chose Buddhism, and sought membership in the [[London Buddhist Lodge]], which had been established by [[Theosophism|Theosophists]],​ and was now run by the barrister [[Christmas Humphreys]]. Watts became the organization'​s secretary at 16 (1931). The young Watts explored several styles of [[meditation]] during these years.
 +Watts attended [[The King's School, Canterbury]] next door to [[Canterbury Cathedral]]. Though he was frequently at the top of his classes scholastically and was given responsibilities at school, he botched an opportunity for a [[scholarship]] to [[University of Oxford|Oxford]] by styling a crucial examination essay in a way that was read as [[wiktionary:​presumptuous|presumptuous]] and [[wiktionary:​capricious|capricious]].<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973, p. 102</​ref>​
 +When he left secondary school, Watts worked in a printing house and later a bank. He spent his spare time involved with the Buddhist Lodge and also under the tutelage of a "​rascal guru" named [[Dimitrije Mitrinović]]. (Mitrinović was himself influenced by [[P. D. Ouspensky|Peter Demianovich Ouspensky]],​ [[George Gurdjieff|G. I. Gurdjieff]],​ and the varied psychoanalytical schools of [[Sigmund Freud|Freud]],​ [[Carl Jung|Jung]] and [[Alfred Adler|Adler]].) Watts also read widely in philosophy, history, psychology, psychiatry and Eastern wisdom. By his own reckoning, and also by that of his biographer [[Monica Furlong]], Watts was primarily an [[autodidact]]. His involvement with the Buddhist Lodge in London afforded Watts a considerable number of opportunities for personal growth. Through Humphreys, he contacted eminent spiritual authors (e.g. the artist, scholar, and mystic [[Nicholas Roerich]], [[Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan]],​ and prominent theosophists like [[Alice Bailey]]).
 +In 1936, aged 21, he attended the World Congress of Faiths at the [[University of London]], heard [[D. T. Suzuki]] read a paper, and afterwards was able to meet this esteemed scholar of [[Zen Buddhism]].<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973, pp. 78–82</​ref>​ Beyond these discussions and personal encounters, Watts absorbed, by studying the available scholarly literature, the fundamental [[concept]]s and [[terminology]] of the main philosophies of India and [[East Asia]].
 +===Influences and first publication===
 +Watts'​s fascination with the Zen (or Ch'an) tradition—beginning during the 1930s—developed because that tradition embodied the spiritual, interwoven with the practical, as exemplified in the subtitle of his ''​Spirit of Zen: A Way of Life, Work, and Art in the Far East''​. "​Work",​ "​life",​ and "​art"​ were not demoted due to a spiritual focus. In his writing, he referred to it as "the great Ch'an (or Zen) synthesis of [[Taoism]], Confucianism and Buddhism after 700 CE in China."<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1947/1971 ''​Behold the Spirit'',​ revised edition. New York: Random House / Vintage. p. 32</​ref>​ Watts published his first book, ''​The Spirit of Zen,''​ in 1936. Two decades later, in ''​The Way of Zen''<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W., 1957, p.11</​ref>​ he disparaged ''​The Spirit of Zen''​ as a "​popularisation of [[D. T. Suzuki|Suzuki]]'​s earlier works, and besides being very unscholarly it is in many respects out of date and misleading."​
 +Watts married Eleanor Everett, whose mother [[Ruth Fuller Sasaki|Ruth Fuller Everett]] was involved with a traditional Zen Buddhist circle in New York. Ruth Fuller later married the Zen master (or "​roshi"​),​ [[Sokei-an Sasaki]], who served as a sort of model and mentor to Watts, though he chose not to enter into a formal Zen training relationship with Sasaki. During these years, according to his later writings, Watts had another mystical experience while on a walk with his wife. In 1938 Watts and his bride left England to live in America. Watts became an American citizen in 1943.<​ref>​{{cite web|title=Alan Wilson Watts|url=http://​​topic/​Alan_Watts.aspx|publisher=Encyclopedia of World Biography}}</​ref>​
 +===Christian priest and after===
 +{{refimprove section|date=November 2014}}
 +Watts left formal Zen training in New York because the method of the teacher did not suit him. He was not ordained as a Zen monk, but he felt a need to find a vocational outlet for his philosophical inclinations. He entered [[Seabury-Western Theological Seminary]], an Episcopal (Anglican) school in Evanston, Illinois, where he studied Christian scriptures, theology, and church history. He attempted to work out a blend of contemporary Christian worship, mystical Christianity,​ and Asian philosophy. Watts was awarded a master'​s degree in theology in response to his thesis, which he published as a popular edition under the title ''​[[Behold the Spirit: A Study in the Necessity of Mystical Religion]]''​. He later published ''​Myth & Ritual in Christianity''​ (1953), an [[eisegesis]] of traditional [[Roman Catholic|Catholic]] doctrine and ritual in Buddhist terms. ​ However, the pattern was set, in that Watts did not hide his dislike for religious outlooks that he decided were dour, guilt-ridden,​ or militantly proselytizing—no matter if they were found within [[Judaism]],​ [[Christianity]],​ [[Islam]], [[Hinduism]],​ or [[Buddhism]].
 +As recounted in is autobiography,​ Alan became an [[Episcopal priest]] in 1945 (aged 30) and resigned the ministry by 1950, partly as a result of an extramarital affair which resulted in his young wife having their marriage annulled, but also because he could no longer reconcile his Buddhist beliefs with the formal doctrine of the church. He spent the New Year getting to know [[Joseph Campbell]] and Campbell'​s wife, [[Jean Erdman]]; as well as [[John Cage]], the notable composer.
 +In early 1951, Watts moved to California, where he joined the faculty of the [[American Academy of Asian Studies]] in [[San Francisco]]. Here he taught from 1951 to 1957 alongside Saburō Hasegawa (1906-1957),​ [[Frederic Spiegelberg]],​ [[Haridas Chaudhuri]],​ [[lama]] Tada Tōkan (1890-1967),​ and various visiting experts and professors. Hasegawa, in particular, served as a teacher to Watts in the areas of Japanese customs, arts, primitivism,​ and perceptions of nature. ​ It was during this time he met the poet, [[Jean Burden]] whom he called an  "​important influence."​ Alan placed a "​cryptograph"​ crediting her in his book "​Nature , Man and Woman" to which he alludes in his autobiography (P.297). Besides ​ teaching, Watts served for several years as the Academy'​s administrator. One notable student of his was [[Eugene Rose]], who later went on to become a noted [[hieromonk]] and theologian in the [[Eastern Orthodox Church]] in America.
 +Watts also studied written Chinese and practiced Chinese brush calligraphy with Hasegawa as well as with some of the Chinese students who enrolled at the academy. While Watts was noted for an interest in [[Zen Buddhism]], his reading and discussions delved into [[Vedanta]],​ "​[[quantum physics|the new physics]]",​ [[cybernetics]],​ [[semantics]],​ [[process philosophy]],​ [[natural history]], and the [[anthropology]] of sexuality.
 +==Middle years==
 +After heading up the Academy for a few years, Watts left the faculty for a freelance career in the mid-1950s. In 1953, he began what became a long-running weekly radio program at Pacifica Radio station KPFA in Berkeley. ​ Like other volunteer programmers at the listener-sponsored station, Watts was not paid for his broadcasts. ​ These weekly broadcasts continued until 1962, by which time he had attracted a "​legion of regular listeners"​.<​ref>​[https://​​details/​kpfafolio131paci ''​KPFA Folio'',​ Volume 13, no. 1], 9–22 April 1962, p. 14. Retrieved at on 26 November 2014.</​ref><​ref>​[https://​​details/​kpfafolio141paci ''​KPFA Folio'',​ Volume 14, no. 1], 8–21 April 1963, p. 19. Retrieved at on 26 November 2014.</​ref>​
 +Watts continued to give numerous talks and seminars, recordings of which were broadcast on KPFA and other radio stations during his life. These recordings are broadcast to this day.   (For example, in 1970 Watts lectures were broadcast on Sunday mornings on San Francisco radio station KSAN;<​ref>​Susan Krieger, ''​Hip Capitalism'',​ 1979, Sage Publications,​ Beverly Hills, ISBN 0-8039-1263-3 pbk., p. 170.</​ref>​ and in 2014 a number of radio stations continue to have an Alan Watts program in their weekly program schedules.<​ref>​[http://​​sched/​weekly.html KKUP Program Schedule]. ​ Retrieved on 26 November 2014.</​ref>​
 +<​ref>​[http://​​index.php/​programs/​programschedule KPFK Program Schedule]. ​ Retrieved on 26 November 2014.</​ref>​
 +<​ref>​[http://​​schedule.html KGNU Program Schedule]. ​ Retrieved on 26 November 2014.</​ref>​) ​ Original tapes of his broadcasts and talks are currently held by the Pacifica Radio Archives, based at [[KPFK]] in Los Angeles, and at the Electronic University archive founded by his son, Mark Watts.
 +In 1957 Watts, then 42, published one of his best known books, ''​The Way of Zen'',​ which focused on philosophical explication and history. Besides drawing on the lifestyle and philosophical background of Zen, in India and China, Watts introduced ideas drawn from [[general semantics]] (directly from the writings of [[Alfred Korzybski]]) and also from [[Norbert Wiener]]'​s early work on [[cybernetics]],​ which had recently been published. Watts offered analogies from cybernetic principles possibly applicable to the Zen life. The book sold well, eventually becoming a modern classic, and helped widen his lecture circuit.
 +In 1958, Watts toured parts of Europe with his father, meeting the Swiss psychiatrist [[Carl Jung]] and the German psychotherapist [[Karlfried Graf Dürckheim]].<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973, p. 321.</​ref>​
 +Upon returning to the United States, Watts recorded two seasons of a television series (1959–1960) for [[KQED (TV)|KQED]] public television in San Francisco, "​Eastern Wisdom and Modern Life"​.<​ref>​Alan Watts, "​Eastern Wisdom and Modern Life, [http://​​playlist?​list=PL772D292429735309 Season 1 (1959)"​] and [http://​​playlist?​list=PLA1C3BAC2EB58EE47 Season 2 (1960)], KQED public television series, San Francisco</​ref>​
 +In the 1960s, Watts became increasingly interested in how identifiable patterns in nature tend to repeat themselves from the smallest of scales to the most immense. ​ This became one of his passions in his research and thought.<​ref>​Ropp,​ Robert S. de  1995, 2002  ''​Warrior'​s Way: a Twentieth Century Odyssey''​. ​ Nevada City, CA: Gateways, pp. 333-334.</​ref>​
 +Some of Watts’s writings published in 1958 (e.g., his book ''​Nature,​ Man and Woman''​ and his essay "The New Alchemy"​) mentioned some of his early views on the use of psychedelic drugs for mystical insight. Watts had begun to experiment with psychedelics,​ initially with [[mescaline]] given to him by [[Oscar Janiger]]. He tried [[LSD]] several times in 1958, with various research teams led by Keith S. Ditman (1921-2001),​ Sterling Bunnell, Jr., and Michael Agron. He also tried [[marijuana]] and concluded that it was a useful and interesting psychoactive drug that gave the impression of time slowing down. Watts'​s books of the '60s reveal the influence of these chemical adventures on his outlook. He later said about psychedelic drug use, "If you get the message, hang up the phone."<​ref>''​The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness''​ (the quote is new to the 1965/1970 edition (page 26), and not contained in the original 1962 edition of the book).</​ref>​
 +For a time, Watts came to prefer writing in the language of modern science and psychology (''​Psychotherapy East and West''​ is a good example),​{{tone-inline|date=November 2014}} finding a parallel between mystical experiences and the theories of the material universe proposed by 20th-century physicists. He later equated mystical experience with ecological awareness, and typically emphasized whichever approach seemed best suited to the audience he was addressing.{{citation needed|date=November 2014}}
 +===Supporters and critics===
 +Watts'​s explorations and teaching brought him into contact with many noted intellectuals,​ artists, and American teachers in the [[human potential movement]]. His friendship with poet [[Gary Snyder]] nurtured his sympathies with the budding [[environmental movement]], to which Watts gave philosophical support. He also encountered [[Robert Anton Wilson]], who credited Watts with being one of his "​Light[s] along the Way" in the opening appreciation of ''​[[Cosmic Trigger]]''​. [[Werner Erhard]] attended workshops given by  Alan Watts and said of him, "He pointed me toward what I now call the distinction between Self and Mind. After my encounter with Alan, the context in which I was working shifted."<​ref>​William Warren Bartley, Werner Erhard, The Transformation of a Man</​ref>​
 +Though never affiliated for long with any one academic institution,​ he was Professor of Comparative Philosophy at the [[California Institute of Integral Studies]] as mentioned above, had a fellowship at [[Harvard University]] (1962–64),​ and was a Scholar at [[San Jose State University]] (1968).<​ref>​{{cite web|title=Alan Watts - Life and Works|url=http://​​life-and-works/​}}</​ref> ​ He also lectured to many college and university students as well as the general public.<​ref>​{{cite web|title=Deoxy Org: Alan Watts|url=http://​​watts.htm}}</​ref> ​ His lectures and books gave him far-reaching influence on the American intelligentsia of the 1950s–1970s,​ but he was often seen as an outsider in academia.<​ref>​{{cite web|last1=Weidenbaum|first1=Jonathan|title=Complaining about Alan Watts|url=http://​​JonathanWeidenbaum/​Posts/​353447/​Complaining-about-Alan-Watts}}</​ref>​ When questioned sharply by students during his talk at University of California Santa Cruz in 1970, Watts responded, as he had from the early sixties, that he was not an academic philosopher but rather "a philosophical entertainer"​.
 +Watts has been criticized by Buddhists such as [[Philip Kapleau]] and [[D. T. Suzuki]] for allegedly misinterpreting several key Zen Buddhist concepts. In particular, he drew criticism from those who believe that [[zazen]] must entail a strict and specific means of sitting, as opposed to a cultivated state of mind available at any moment in any situation. Typical of these is Kapleau'​s claim that Watts dismissed [[zazen]] on the basis of only half a [[koan]].<​ref>​Kapleau 1967, pp. 21–22</​ref>​ In regard to the aforementioned koan, [[Robert Baker Aitken]] reports that Suzuki told him, "I regret to say that Mr. Watts did not understand that story."<​ref>​[[#​refAitken|Aitken 1997]], p. 30. [http://​​books?​id=SS-Dc6ox4hYC&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=%22original+dwelling+place%22#​PPA29,​M1]</​ref>​ In his talks, Watts addressed the issue of defining zazen practice by saying, "A cat sits until it is tired of sitting, then gets up, stretches, and walks away."
 +Watts’s biographers saw him, after his stint as an Anglican priest, as representative of no religion but as a lone-wolf thinker and social rascal. In David Stuart’s warts-and-all biography of the man, Watts is seen as an unusually gifted speaker and writer driven by his own interests, enthusiasms,​ and demons.<​ref>​Stuart,​ David 1976 ''​Alan Watts''​. Pennsylvania:​ Chilton.</​ref>​ Elsa Gidlow, whom Alan called "​sister" ​ refused to be interviewed for this work but later painted a kinder picture ​ of Alan's life in her own autobiography,​ "Elsa, I Come With My Songs."​
 +However, Watts did have his supporters in the Zen community, including [[Shunryu Suzuki]], the founder of the San Francisco Zen Center. As [[David Chadwick (writer)|David Chadwick]] recounted in his biography of Suzuki, ''​Crooked Cucumber: the Life and Zen Teaching of Shunryu Suzuki'',​ when a student of Suzuki'​s disparaged Watts by saying "we used to think he was profound until we found the real thing",​ Suzuki "fumed with a sudden intensity",​ saying, "You completely miss the point about Alan Watts! You should notice what he has done. He is a great [[bodhisattva]]."<​ref>​Chadwick,​ D: ''​Crooked Cucumber: The Life and Zen Teaching of Shunryu Suzuki'',​ Broadway Books,​2000</​ref>​
 +===Applied aesthetics===
 +Watts sometimes alluded to a group of neighbors in [[Druid Heights]] (near [[Mill Valley]], California) who had endeavored to combine architecture,​ gardening, and carpentry skills to make a beautiful and comfortable life for themselves. These neighbors accomplished this by relying on their own talents and using their own hands, as they lived in what has been called "​shared bohemian poverty"​.<​ref>​^ Davis, Erik (May 2005). Druids and Ferries "​Druids and Ferries"​. Arthur (Brooklyn: Arthur Publishing Corp.) (16). http://​​index_druid.html Druids and Ferries.</​ref>​ Druid Heights was founded by the writer [[Elsa Gidlow]],<​ref name=Davis2005>​{{cite journal| last =  Davis| first =  Erik| authorlink = Erik Davis| title = Druids and Ferries| journal = [[Arthur (magazine)|Arthur]]| issue = 16| publisher = Arthur Publishing Corp.| location = Brooklyn| date = May 2005| url =  http://​​index_druid.html}}</​ref>​ and Watts dedicated his book ''​The Joyous Cosmology''​ to the people of this neighborhood.<​ref>''​The Joyous Cosmology'',​ p. v</​ref>​ He later dedicated his autobiography to Elsa Gidlow, for whom he held a great affection.
 +Regarding his intentions, Watts attempted to lessen the [[social alienation|alienation]] that accompanies the experience of being human that he felt plagued the modern Westerner, and (like his fellow British expatriate and friend, [[Aldous Huxley]]) to lessen the ill will that was an unintentional by-product of alienation from the natural world. He felt such teaching could improve the world, at least to a degree. He also articulated the possibilities for greater incorporation of [[aesthetics]] (for example: better architecture,​ more art, more fine cuisine) in American life. In his autobiography he wrote, "… cultural renewal comes about when highly differentiated cultures mix"​.<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1973, p. 247.</​ref>​
 +In his last novel ''​[[Island (Huxley novel)|Island]]''​ (1962), Aldous Huxley mentions the religious practice of [[maithuna]] as being something like what [[Roman Catholics]] call "​[[coitus reservatus]]"​. A few years before, Alan Watts had discussed the theme in his own book ''​Nature,​ Man and Woman''​. There, he discusses the possibility of the practice being known to early Christians and of it being kept secretly by the Church.
 +==Later years==
 +In his writings of the 1950s, he conveyed his admiration for the practicality in the historical achievements of [[Chán]] (Zen) in the Far East, for it had fostered farmers, architects, builders, folk physicians, artists, and administrators among the monks who had lived in the monasteries of its lineages. In his mature work, he presents himself as "​Zennist"​ in spirit as he wrote in his last book, ''​[[Tao:​ The Watercourse Way]]''​. Child rearing, the arts, cuisine, education, law and freedom, architecture,​ sexuality, and the uses and abuses of technology were all of great interest to him. Though known for his Zen teachings, he was also influenced by ancient Hindu scriptures, especially Vedanta, and spoke extensively about the nature of the divine reality which Man misses: how the contradiction of opposites is the method of life and the means of cosmic and human evolution; how our fundamental Ignorance is rooted in the exclusive nature of mind and ego; how to come in touch with the Field of Consciousness and Light, and other cosmic principles. These are discussed in great detail in dozens of hours of audio that are in part captured in the 'Out of Your Mind' series.
 +Watts sought to resolve his feelings of alienation from the institutions of marriage and the values of American society, as revealed in his classic comments on love relationships in "​Divine Madness"​ and on perception of the organism-environment in "The Philosophy of Nature"​. In looking at social issues he was quite concerned with the necessity for international peace, for tolerance and understanding among disparate cultures. He also came to feel acutely conscious of a growing ecological predicament;​ as one instance, in the early 1960s he wrote: "Can any melting or burning imaginable get rid of these ever-rising mountains of ruin—especially when the things we make and build are beginning to look more and more like rubbish even before they are thrown away?"<​ref>''​The Joyous Cosmology'',​ p. 63</​ref>​ These concerns were later expressed in a television pilot made for [[National Educational Television|NET]] filmed at his mountain retreat in 1971 in which he noted that the single track of conscious attention was wholly inadequate for interactions with a multi-tracked world.
 +===Political stance===
 +He disliked much in the conventional idea of "​progress"​. He hoped for change, but he preferred amiable, semi-isolated rural social enclaves, and also believed in tolerance for social misfits and [[eccentricity (behavior)|eccentric]] artists. Watts decried the [[suburbanization]] of the countryside and the way of life that went with it. In one campus lecture tour, which Watts titled "The End to the Put-Down of Man", Watts presented positive images for both nature and humanity, spoke in favor of the various stages of [[human development (biology)|human development]] (including the [[teenage]] years), reproached excessive [[cynicism (contemporary)|cynicism]] and rivalry, and extolled intelligent creativity, good [[architecture]] and food.{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}
 +===On spiritual and social identity===
 +Watts felt that [[moral absolutism|absolute morality]] had nothing to do with the fundamental realization of one's deep spiritual identity. He advocated social rather than personal ethics. In his writings, Watts was increasingly concerned with ethics applied to relations between humanity and the natural environment and between governments and citizens. He wrote out of an appreciation of a racially and culturally diverse social landscape.
 +He often said that he wished to act as a bridge between the ancient and the modern, between East and West, and between culture and nature.
 +Watts led some tours for Westerners to the Buddhist temples of Japan. He also studied some movements from the traditional [[Chinese martial arts|Chinese martial]] art [[T'ai chi ch'​uan]],​ with an Asian colleague, [[Chungliang Al Huang|Al Chung-liang Huang]].
 +In several of his later publications,​ especially ''​Beyond Theology''​ and ''​The Book on the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are'',​ Watts put forward a [[worldview]],​ drawing on [[Hinduism]],​ [[Chinese philosophy]],​ [[pantheism]] or [[panentheism]],​ and modern science, in which he maintains that the whole universe consists of a cosmic self playing hide-and-seek ([[Lila (Hinduism)|Lila]]),​ hiding from itself ([[Maya (illusion)|Maya]]) by becoming all the living and non-living things in the universe, forgetting what it really is; the upshot being that we are all IT in disguise. In this worldview, Watts asserts that our conception of ourselves as an "[[ego (spirituality)|ego]] in a bag of skin" is a myth; the entities we call the separate "​things"​ are merely aspects of the whole.
 +Watts'​s books frequently include discussions reflecting his keen interest in patterns that occur in nature and which are repeated in various ways and at a wide range of scales – including the patterns to be discerned in the history of civilizations.<​ref>​De Ropp, Robert S. 2002 ''​Warrior'​s Way''​. Nevada City, CA: Gateways, p. 334.</​ref><​ref>​Watts,​ Alan W. 1947/1971, pp. 25–28.</​ref>​
 +In October 1973, Watts returned from a European lecture tour to his cabin in [[Druid Heights]]. Friends of Watts had been concerned for him for some time over what they considered his excessive drinking of alcohol.<​ref>''​Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts'',​ by Monica Furlong</​ref>​ On 16 November 1973, he died in his sleep. He was reported to have been under treatment for a heart condition.<​ref>​{{cite news|title=Alan Watts, Zen Philosopher,​ Writer and Teacher, 58, Dies|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|url=http://​​mem/​archive/​pdf?​res=F70C17F83C55137B93C5A8178AD95F478785F9|date=16 November 1973|accessdate=6 March 2013}}</​ref>​ His body was cremated shortly thereafter. His ashes were split with half buried near his library at Druid Heights and half at the Green Gulch Monastery.
 +==Personal life==
 +Watts [[Marriage|married]] three times and had seven children (five daughters and two sons). Watts met Eleanor Everett in 1936, when her mother, [[Ruth Fuller Sasaki|Ruth Fuller Everett]], brought her to London to study piano. They met at the Buddhist Lodge, were engaged the following year and married in April 1938. A daughter, Joan, was born November 1938 and another, Anne, was born in 1942. Their marriage ended in 1949, but Watts continued to correspond with his former mother-in-law.<​ref>​Stirling 2006, pg. 27</​ref>​ Jean Burden, his lover and the inspiration for "​Nature,​ Man and Woman,"​ remained in his thoughts to the end of his life.
 +In 1950, Watts married Dorothy DeWitt and moved to San Francisco in early 1951 to teach. They began a family that grew to include five children: Tia, Mark, Richard, Lila, and Diane. The couple separated in the early sixties after Watts met Mary Jane Yates King while lecturing in New York. After a difficult divorce he married King in 1964. Watts lived with Mary Jane in [[Sausalito,​ California]],​ in the mid-1960s.<​ref>''​The Book on the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are''​ (1966)</​ref>​ He divided his later years between a [[houseboat]] in Sausalito called the ''​[[Vallejo (ferry)|Vallejo]]'',<​ref>​Watts,​ Alan, 1973, pp. 300–304</​ref>​ and a secluded cabin in [[Druid Heights]], on the southwest flank of [[Mount Tamalpais]] north of San Francisco, California.
 +Watts'​s eldest daughters, Joan Watts and Anne Watts, own and manage most of the copyrights to his books. His son, Mark Watts, serves as curator of his father'​s audio, video and film and has published content of some of his spoken lectures in print format.
 +(ISBN'​s for titles originally published prior to 1974 are for reprint editions)
 +* 1932 ''​An Outline of Zen Buddhism'',​ The Golden Vista Press (32 page pamphlet)
 +* 1936 ''​The Spirit of Zen: A Way of Life, Work and Art in the Far East'',​ [[E.P. Dutton]] ISBN 0-8021-3056-9
 +* 1937 ''​The Legacy of Asia and Western Man'',​ [[University of Chicago Press]]
 +* 1940 ''​The Meaning of Happiness''​. (reprinted, [[Harper & Row]], 1979, ISBN 0-06-080178-6)
 +* 1944 ''​Theologia Mystica: Being the Treatise of Saint Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagite,​ on Mystical Theology, Together with the First and Fifth Epistles'',​ West Park, New York: Holy Cross Press<​ref>​[http://​​title/​theologia-mystica-being-the-treatise-of-saint-dionysius-pseudo-areopagite-on-mystical-theology-together-with-the-first-and-fifth-epistles/​oclc/​2353671 ''​Theologia Mystica''​ at WorldCat]</​ref>​
 +* 1947 ''​[[Behold the Spirit|Behold the Spirit: A Study in the Necessity of Mystical Religion]]'',​ Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71761-9
 +* 1950 ''​Easter:​ Its Story and Meaning''​ New York: Schuman
 +* 1951 {{cite book|title= The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety |year= 1951 |url= https://​​books?​id=GRBD3ENZWC4C&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=editions:​LvyMRvZAFQIC&​hl=en&​sa=X&​ei=y26_VKKSKsjDPNXZgYgE&​ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false |publisher= [[Pantheon Books]] |isbn= 0-394-70468-1}}
 +* 1953 ''​Myth and Ritual in Christianity'',​ [[Thames and Hudson]], ISBN 0-8070-1375-7,​ including essay "God and Satan"
 +* 1957 ''​The Supreme Identity: An Essay on Oriental Metaphysic and the Christian Religion'',​ Noonday Press/​[[Farrar,​ Straus & Giroux]]<​ref>​[http://​​oclc/​3429188 ''​The Supreme Identity''​ atWorldCat]</​ref>​ ISBN 0-394-71835-6
 +* 1957 {{cite book|title= The Way of Zen |year= 1957 |url= https://​​books?​id=PMEQKl8CTCgC&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=editions:​XQAjwCFoE-IC&​hl=en&​sa=X&​ei=-m-_VPS-JIX0OqKKgPgH&​ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false |publisher= [[Pantheon Books]] |isbn= 0-375-70510-4}}
 +* 1958 ''​Nature,​ Man, and Woman'',​ Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-679-73233-0
 +* 1959 ''​Beat Zen Square Zen and Zen'',​ San Francisco: [[City Lights Books]], ASIN B000F2RQL4
 +* 1960 ''​This Is It and Other Essays on Zen and Spiritual Experience'',​ Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71904-2
 +* 1961 ''​Psychotherapy East and West'',​ Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71609-4
 +* 1962 ''​The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness'',​ Pantheon Books
 +* 1963 ''​The Two Hands of God: The Myths of Polarity'',​ [[George Braziller]]
 +* 1964 ''​Beyond Theology: The Art of Godmanship'',​ Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71923-9
 +* 1966 {{cite book|title= The Book: On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are |year= 1966 |url= https://​​books?​id=YKPt96ZdidYC&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=isbn:​0679723005&​hl=en&​sa=X&​ei=h2u_VN_EOYP2O7qSgcgC&​ved=0CCIQuwUwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false |publisher= [[Pantheon Books]] |isbn= 0-679-72300-5}}
 +* 1967 ''​Nonsense'',​ illustrations by [[Greg Irons]] (a collection of [[literary nonsense]]),​ San Francisco: Stolen Paper Editions<​ref>​[http://​​title/​nonsense/​oclc/​3992418?​referer=br&​ht=edition ''​Nonsense''​ at WorldCat]</​ref>​
 +* 1970 ''​Does It Matter?: Essays on Man's Relation to Materiality'',​ Pantheon Books, ISBN 0-394-71665-5
 +* 1971 ''​The Temple of Konarak: Erotic Spirituality'',​ with photographs by [[Eliot Elisofon]], London: Thames and Hudson. Also published as ''​Erotic Spirituality:​ The Vision of Konarak'',​ New York: [[Macmillan Publishers (United States)|Macmillan]]
 +* 1972 ''​The Art of Contemplation:​ A Facsimile Manuscript with Doodles'',​ Pantheon Books
 +* {{cite book|title= In My Own Way: An Autobiography 1915–1965 |year= 1972 |url= https://​​books?​id=cY16AAAAQBAJ&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=editions:​9u-VgSGHJIkC&​hl=en&​sa=X&​ei=jHG_VIC1MoPVOKf6gYgK&​ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false |publisher= [[Pantheon Books]]}}, Vintage Books pocket edition 1973, ISBN 0-394-71951-4,​ New World Library edition, 2007, ISBN 1-57731-584-7
 +* 1973 ''​Cloud-hidden,​ Whereabouts Unknown: A Mountain Journal'',​ Pantheon Books. Also published in Canada in 1974 by [[Jonathan Cape]], ISBN 0224009729. ISBN 0-394-71999-9
 +===Posthumous publications===
 +* 1974 ''​The Essence of Alan Watts'',​ ed. Mary Jane Watts, Celestial Arts
 +* 1975 ''​[[Tao:​ The Watercourse Way]]'',​ with [[Chungliang Al Huang]], Pantheon
 +* 1976 ''​Essential Alan Watts'',​ ed. Mark Watts,
 +* 1978 ''​Uncarved Block, Unbleached Silk: The Mystery of Life''​
 +* 1979 ''​Om:​ Creative Meditations'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1982 ''​Play to Live'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1983 ''​Way of Liberation: Essays and Lectures on the Transformation of the Self'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1985 ''​Out of the Trap'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1986 ''​Diamond Web'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1987 ''​The Early Writings of Alan Watts'',​ ed. John Snelling, Dennis T. Sibley, and Mark Watts
 +* 1990 ''​The Modern Mystic: A New Collection of the Early Writings of Alan Watts'',​ ed. John Snelling and Mark Watts
 +* 1994 ''​Talking Zen'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1995 ''​Become What You Are'',​ Shambhala, expanded ed. 2003. ISBN 1-57062-940-4
 +* 1995 ''​Buddhism:​ The Religion of No-Religion'',​ ed. Mark Watts [http://​​books?​id=p4iFh9QKv-AC A preview from Google Books]
 +* 1995 ''​The Philosophies of Asia'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1995 ''​The Tao of Philosophy'',​ ed. Mark Watts, edited transcripts,​ Tuttle Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-8048-3204-8
 +* 1996 ''​Myth and Religion'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1997 ''​Taoism:​ Way Beyond Seeking'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1997 ''​Zen and the Beat Way'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1998 ''​Culture of Counterculture'',​ ed. Mark Watts
 +* 1999 ''​Buddhism:​ The Religion of No-Religion'',​ ed. Mark Watts, edited transcripts,​ [[Tuttle Publishing]]. ISBN 0-8048-3203-X
 +* 2000 ''​What Is Zen?'',​ ed. Mark Watts, New World Library. ISBN 0-394-71951-4 [http://​​books?​id=rhU9yKbEt-MC A preview from Google Books]
 +* 2000 ''​What Is Tao?'',​ ed. Mark Watts, New World Library. ISBN 1-57731-168-X
 +* 2000 ''​Still the Mind: An Introduction to Meditation'',​ ed. Mark Watts, New World Library. ISBN 1-57731-214-7
 +* 2000 ''​Eastern Wisdom'',​ ed. Mark Watts, MJF Books. ISBN 1-56731-491-0,​ three books in one volume: ''​What is Zen?'',​ ''​What is Tao?'',​ and ''​An Introduction to Meditation''​ (''​Still the Mind''​). Assembled from transcriptions of audio tape recordings made by his son Mark, of lectures and seminars given by Alan Watts during the last decade of his life.
 +* 2002 ''​Zen,​ the Supreme Experience: The Newly Discovered Scripts'',​ ed. Mark Watts, Vega
 +* 2006 ''​Eastern Wisdom, Modern Life: Collected Talks, 1960–1969'',​ New World Library
 +===Audio and video works, essays===
 +Including recordings of lectures at major universities and multi-session seminars.
 +* 1960 ''​Eastern Wisdom and Modern Life'',​ television series, Season 1 (1959) and Season 2 (1960)
 +* 1960 ''​Essential Lectures''​
 +* 1960 ''​Nature of Consciousness''​ ([http://​​w_nature.htm here])
 +* 1960 ''​The Value of Psychotic Experience''​
 +* 1960 ''​The World As Emptiness''​
 +* 1960 ''​From Time to Eternity''​
 +* 1960 ''​Lecture On Zen''​
 +* 1960 ''​The Cross of Cards''​
 +* 1960 ''​Taoism''​
 +* 1962 ''​This Is It - Alan Watts and friends in a spontaneous musical happening''​ (Long playing album - MEA LP 1007)
 +* 1968 ''​Psychedelics & Religious Experience'',​ in ''​[[California Law Review]]''​ ([http://​​w_psyrel.htm here])
 +* 1969 ''​Why Not Now: The Art of Meditation''​
 +* 1971 ''​A Conversation With Myself:''​ {{YouTube|8aufuwMiKmE|Part 1}}, {{YouTube|dZ8WeLrtFnY|Part 2}}, {{YouTube|3RcjATFcbq4|Part 3}}, {{YouTube|tOYIE-RX3No|Part 4}}
 +* 1972 ''​The Art of Contemplation'',​ Village Press
 +* 1972 ''​The Way of Liberation in Zen Buddhism'',​ Alan Watts Journal, vol. 2, nr 1
 +* 1994 ''​Zen:​ The Best of Alan Watts''​ (VHS)
 +* 2004 ''​Out of Your Mind: Essential Listening from the Alan Watts Audio Archives'',​ Sounds True, Inc. Unabridged edition, ​
 +* 2005 ''​Do You Do It, or Does It Do You?: How to let the universe meditate you''​ (CD)
 +* 2007 ''​Zen Meditations with Alan Watts'',​ DVD ([http://​​world-religions-volume-4-zen-meditations-alan-watts here])
 +* 2013 ''​What If Money Was No Object?''​ (3 minutes) on [[YouTube]]
 +===Biographical publications===
 +*Furlong, Monica 1986 ''​Genuine Fake: a Biography of Alan Watts''​. ​ Heinemann. (or titled ''​Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts''​ as published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, ISBN 0-395-45392-5)
 +*Lhermite, Pierre 1983 ''​Alan Watts, Taoïste d'​Occident'',​ éd. La Table Ronde.
 +*Stuart, David 1976 (pseudonym for Edwin Palmer Hoyt, Jr.) ''​Alan Watts: The Rise and Decline of the Ordained Shaman of the Counterculture''​. Chilton Book Co, Pa.
 +In recent years, portions of Watts'​s lectures have been popularized by a series of animated internet videos.<​ref>​Flash Animated Philosophy From South Park Creators [http://​​2007/​07/​flash-animated-philosophy-from-south.html]</​ref>​
 +His talks inspired [[Van Morrison]] to write the song "Alan Watts Blues" for his album [[Poetic Champions Compose]].
 +Samples from lectures by Alan Watts are featured in the intros or endings of several of [[STRFKR]] songs, including "​Florida",​ "​Isabella of Castile",​ "​Medicine",​ "​Pistol Pete", "​Mystery Cloud",​ "​Hungry Ghost" and "​Quality Time".
 +[[Ott]] features samples of Alan Watts lectures in his 2011 album [[Mir]], on the first track, One Day I Wish to Have This Kind of Time.
 +[[Nothing More]]'​s 2014 album has passages from Watts'​s lectures incorporated into the background of several songs.
 +[[Logic (rapper)|Logic]] features Watts'​s lecture "What If Money Was No Object" ​ on his 2015 album ''​[[The Incredible True Story]]''​ in the title song.
 +The 2013 film ''​[[Her (film)|Her]]''​ features Watts as an [[artificial intelligence|artificially intelligent]] operating system, portrayed by [[Brian Cox (actor)|Brian Cox]].<​ref name=IMDb>​{{cite web|title=Her (2013)|url=http://​​title/​tt1798709/​combined|,​ Inc.|accessdate=31 December 2013}}</​ref>​
 +*<cite id=refAitken>​Aitken,​ Robert. ''​Original Dwelling Place''​. Counterpoint. Washington, D.C. 1997. ISBN 1-887178-41-4 (paperback)</​cite>​
 +*Charters, Ann (ed.). ''​The Portable Beat Reader''​. Penguin Books. New York. 1992. ISBN 0-670-83885-3 (hard cover); ISBN 0-14-015102-8 (paperback)
 +*<cite id=refFurlong>​Furlong,​ Monica, ''​Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts''​ Houghton Mifflin. New York. 1986 ISBN 0-395-45392-5,​ Skylight Paths 2001 edition of the biography, with new foreword by author: ISBN 1-893361-32-2</​cite>​
 +*Gidlow, Elsa, "​Elsa:​I Come With My Songs"​. Bootlegger Press and Druid Heights Books, San Francisco. 1986. 
 +ISBN 0-912932-12-0
 +*Kapleau, Philip. ''​Three Pillars of Zen''​ (1967) Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5975-7
 +*Stirling, Isabel. ''​Zen Pioneer: The Life & Works of Ruth Fuller Sasak'',​ Shoemaker & Hoard. 2006. ISBN 978-1-59376-110-3
 +*Watts, Alan, ''​In My Own Way''​. New York. Random House Pantheon. 1973 ISBN 0-394-46911-9 (his autobiography)
 +==Further reading==
 +{{Library resources box|by=yes|lcheading= Watts, Alan}}
 +*Clark, David K. ''​The Pantheism of Alan Watts''​. Downers Grove, Ill. Inter-Varsity Press. 1978. ISBN 0-87784-724-X
 +==External links==
 +{{Portal|San Francisco Bay Area}}
 +*[http://​​index.php] run by Watts' son Mark, who has produced a documentary about his father'​s life called ''​Why Not Now?''​
 +*[https://​​watch?​v=tW8XSlgTDd8 ''​Why Not Now?''​ film trailer]
 +*[http://​​ Alan Watts Mountain Center] north of [[San Francisco]]
 +*[http://​ Alan Watts Electronic University] – Alan Watts' audio and video courses, co-founded by Alan Watts, Mark Watts, and Henry Jacobs in 1973.
 +*[http://​ Alan Watts Podcast] – the official podcast ​
 +*[http://​ Master Enlightenments Arts Seminars and Lectures by Alan Watts] – looking at many different forms of enlightenment;​ recorded by [[Henry Jacobs]] in 1964/65.
 +*[http://​​unicorn/​watts/​index.htm Alan Watts Online] – Project Unicorn (also {{Wayback |df=yes|date=20041031135118 |url=http://​​library/​unicorn/​watts/​index.htm }})
 +*{{worldcat id|id=lccn-n80-2299}}
 +*[http://​​nothingness.htm Watts essay on Nothingness] (This link no longer functions, but is available at {{Wayback |df=yes|date=20080831120514 |url=http://​​nothingness.htm }}.)
 +*[http://​​watts.htm Alan Watts Lectures and Essays] audio, video, essays, and articles – resources from [http://​]
 +*[http://​​LamaReviews/​lamaAlanWattsThisIsIt.htm Alan Watts' ''​This Is It: The First Psychedelic LP''​] essay by [[Patrick Lundborg]]
 +*[http://​​AlanWatts.html Alan Watts Resource Compilation] audio and video links of his lectures and essays
 +*{{Wayback |df=yes|date=20100909003643 |url=http://​​2009/​08/​alan-watts-on-youtube-south-park/​ |title=Alan Watts on YouTube, South Park}} interview with Mark Watts on the resurgence of his father'​s work
 +*[http://​​comic/​98-alan-watts-what-if-money-was-no-object/​ "What if money was no object?"​] interpretation of Watts' lecture at
 +*[http://​​Cucumber%20Project/​other/​watts/​watts.htm Alan Watts on] ​
 +*[https://​​groups/​2208684428/?​ref=ts&​fref=ts Alan Watts page on Facebook] public discussion group 
 +{{Modern Buddhist writers}}
 +{{Authority control}}
 +{{Persondata <!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:​Persondata]]. -->
 +| NAME              = Watts, Alan
 +| SHORT DESCRIPTION = English philosopher
 +| DATE OF BIRTH     = 6 January 1915
 +| PLACE OF BIRTH    = [[Chislehurst]],​ [[Kent]], England
 +| DATE OF DEATH     = 16 November 1973
 +| PLACE OF DEATH    = [[Mt. Tamalpais]],​ [[California]]
 +{{DEFAULTSORT:​Watts,​ Alan}}
 +[[Category:​1915 births]]
 +[[Category:​1973 deaths]]
 +[[Category:​20th-century philosophers]]
 +[[Category:​Buddhism in the United States]]
 +[[Category:​Converts to Buddhism from Christianity]]
 +[[Category:​Buddhist philosophers]]
 +[[Category:​Mahayana Buddhists]]
 +[[Category:​English Buddhists]]
 +[[Category:​English philosophers]]
 +[[Category:​English spiritual teachers]]
 +[[Category:​English spiritual writers]]
 +[[Category:​English Taoists]]
 +[[Category:​Harvard Fellows]]
 +[[Category:​Buddhist writers]]
 +[[Category:​Psychedelic drug advocates]]
 +[[Category:​People associated with the Human Potential Movement]]
 +[[Category:​American Episcopal priests]]
 +[[Category:​Writers from London]]
 +[[Category:​People from Chislehurst]]
 +[[Category:​Counterculture of the 1960s]]
alan_watts.txt · Last modified: 2016/01/30 20:07 (external edit)