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, author of the most famous commentary on the Abhisamayalankara]] Abhisamayalankara (Skt. Abhisamayālaṃkāra; Tib. མངོན་རྟོགས་རྒྱན་, Ngöntok Gyen; Wyl. mngon rtogs rgyan), The Ornament of Clear Realization — one of the five treatises that were directly revealed to Asanga by the future Buddha Maitreya, it is a commentary on the hidden meaning of the Prajñaparamita Sutras, describing the entire journey of the bodhisattva, from the generation of bodhichitta to the attainment of full omniscience. It is included among the so-called “Thirteen great texts”, which form the core of the curriculum in most shedras and on which Khenpo Shenga provided commentaries.

, mother of all the buddhas]] The text is divided into eight topics:<br>


, author of the most famous commentary on the Abhisamayalankara]] Eight topics (Skt. aṣṭa padārtha; Tib. དངོས་པོ་བརྒྱད་, Wyl. dngos po brgyad) or the eight clear realizations (Tib. མངོན་རྟོགས་བརྒྱད་, Wyl. mngon rtogs brgyad) — the Abhisamayalankara is divided into eight topics:<br> </noinclude>

The [[eight topics]]

  1. path-knowledge (Skt. Mārgākārajñatā; Tib. ལམ་ཤེས་ཉིད་, lamshe nyi or ལམ་ཤེས་, lamshe)<br>
  2. base-knowledge, knowledge of the bases, knowledge of the foundation (Skt. vastujñāna; Tib. གཞི་ཤེས་, zhishe) but also all-knowledge (Skt. Sarvajñatā; Tib. ཐམས་ཅད་ཤེས་པ་ཉིད་, tamche shepa nyi)<br>
  3. complete application of all aspects, application of the realization of all aspects (Skt. Sarvākārābhisambodha; Tib. རྣམ་ཀུན་མངོན་རྫོགས་རྟོགས་པ་ but also རྣམ་རྫོགས་སྦྱོར་བ་, namdzog jorwa)<br>
  4. culminating application, application when reaching the peak (Skt. Murdhābhisamaya; Tib. རྩེ་མོར་སྦྱོར་བ་, tsemor jorwa)<br>
  5. progressive application, gradual training, gradual application of the bodhisattva path (Skt. Anupurvābhisamaya; Tib. མཐར་གྱིས་པའི་སྦྱོར་བ་, thar gyi jorwa)<br>
  6. instantaneous application, momentary training (Skt. Ekakṣanābhisamaya; Tib. སྐད་ཅིག་མའི་སྦྱོར་བ་, kechigme jorwa)<br>
  7. dharmakaya (Skt. dharmakāya but also Dharmakāyābhisambodha; Wyl. chos sku; Tib. ཆོས་སྐུ་, chö ku)


Abhisamayalankara Enumerations 08-Eight </noinclude>

These eight topics are further divided into seventy points.

[[Quotations: Indian Masters#Maitreya|Quotations]]

Definition of [[Bodhichitta]]

Not a thing to be removed, nothing to be added

Tibetan Text



  • Arya Vimuktisena, Commentary on the Abhisamayalankara (Skt. abhisamayālaṅkārakārikāvārttika, Tib. ཉི་ཁྲི་སྣང་བ་, nyi khri snang ba)


  • Haribhadra, Sphutartha (Skt. Sphuṭārthā; Tib. འགྲེལ་པ་དོན་གསལ་, Wyl. 'grel pa don gsal)



  • Tsongkhapa, Golden Garland of Eloquence (ལེགས་བཤད་གསེར་ཕྲེང་, legs bshad gser phreng) (translated by Gareth Sparham, Jain Publishing, 2008)



  • Pöpa Tulku, The Oral Transmission of the Invincible Maitreya and An Adornment to the Vision of the Invincible Maitreya




  • Mipham Rinpoche ཤེར་ཕྱིན་མངོན་རྟོགས་རྒྱན་གྱི་མཆན་འགྲེལ་པུཎྜ་རི་ཀའི་དོ་ཤལ།, sher phyin mngon rtogs rgyan gyi mchan 'grel puN+Da ri ka'i do shal



  • Abhisamayalankara, Edward Conze (Rome: Is.M.E.O., 1954).
  • Gone Beyond: The Prajnaparamita Sutras, The Ornament of Clear Realization, and Its Commentaries in the Tibetan Kagyu Tradition, Volume One, translated and introduced by Karl Brunnhölzl (Ithaca: Snow Lion), Vol. One, July 2011 / Vol. Two forthcoming 2012
  • Ornament of Clear Realization: A Commentary on the Prajnaparamita of Maitreya, Thrangu Rinpoche, Zhyisil Chokyi Ghatsal, 2004.
  • Abhisamayalankara (mngon rtogs rgyan), Maitreya – Asanga with commentary by Jamgön Mipham, Padmakara translation group, forthcoming

Further Reading

  • John Makransky, Buddhahood embodied: sources of controversy in India and Tibet, New York: SUNY, 1997
  • James B. Apple, Stairway to Nirvana: A Study of the Twenty Samghas Based on the Works of Tsong kha pa, SUNY, 2008
  • James B. Apple, Contributions to the Development and Classification of Abhisamayālaṃkāra Literature in Tibet from the Ninth to Fourteenth Centuries, JIATS, no. 5 (December 2009), available online here



abhisamayalankara.txt · Last modified: 2014/09/17 04:19 (external edit)